The Wonders of Indus Valley Civilisation
A marvellous civilisation in banks of Indus river, which existed in second half of third millennium BC, i.e. from 2500 to 2001 BC is popularly known as the Indus valley civilisation. It was spread in now northern part of India and Pakistan.
Indus valley civilisation show wonders of architecture and town planning. Streets in these cities were planned in such way that they intersect each other in right angles. They also had underground sanitation and drainage system. All houses had courtyard and even multistory buildings are found in remains of these great cities. A raised platform on western side of city, known as 'Citadel' was mainly for administrative buildings. Though no temples or palaces are found. People were consious for public and personal hygiene, as suggested by great baths and their drainage system. They were advanced in agriculture as well as the great granaries were found, for food grain production, which was traded with Mesopotemian cities according to evidences that were found.
People in Indus valley civilisation had well developed artistic knowledge and taste. Statues from this era like 'Stelite Yogi', 'Red sandstone human toroso', 'statue of mother goddess' or 'dancing girl' are quite popular. Important technique of sculpture making such as 'lost wax technique' was found by them. Terracotta tous and pottery was also famous. Pottery signified storage methods and trade.
Seals that had unicorn or pashupatinath engraved on them were found on many locations, which helped us to draw conclusion that they were used as trade linkage. They were found in Mesopotemia as well.
This civilisation had no specific religion. But evidences such as statue of mother goddess and pashupathinath seals show that they worshipped nature.
Important cities in Indus valley civilisation were Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Mehrgarh which are now in Pakistan; Kalibangan, chanhu-daro, balathal which are currently in Rajasthan, India; Dholavira, surkotada, Lothal port whoch is also known as Manchester of Indus valley civilisation are in Gujarat; Rakhigarhi, banawali in Haryana; Ropar in Punjab; Damiabad in Maharashtra; Alamgirpur in Uttar pradesh and many others. All these cities were significant for some thing or another.
Indus valley civilisation and Mesopotemian civilisation were believed to have existed in same era. There was trade in both of them. But while cities in Indus valley civilisation were grid pattern, Mesopotemian cities were in cirrcular pattern, which is why Indus valley civilisation is believed to be advanced one out of two.
But, this amazing civilisation declined later because of various reasons such as famines, diseases; Natural disaster like floods, earthquakes and most importantly change in course of Indus river.
Indus valley civilisation was truly wonderful, a world that is far behind us in past yet so advanced.
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